In this contest the contestant or team of contestants design and build small self- contained robots (micromice) to negotiate a maze in the shortest possible time. On the behalf of IEEE student branch, VIT, I have conducted a workshop on making of a Micromouse – ‘A DREAM FOR ALL THE ROBOTICS ASPIRANTS’. The micromouse was made initially with a DC motor,since the strategy revolved .. Integrate both ciruits to make up the micromouse circuit.

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This is my maze solving robot project which worked out pretty well. I have put up my whole project report that i submitted to my college but i have chucked out the exact code. If you are interested only to learn about the algorithm and not worried about the design pl skip to the section 5 of this text. From Bomb sniffing to finding humans in wreckage to mixromouse automation.

Major problems facing designers are power and reliable sensing mechanism and unfamiliar terrain obotic competitions have inspired engineers for many years.

Competitions are held all around the world based on autonomous robots. One of the competions with the richest history go micromouse. The micromouse competitions have existed for almost 30 years in hkw United States and it has changed little since its inception. The goal of the contest is simple.

Micromouse maze solving with Processing and the Right Hand Rule

The robot must navigate from a corner to the center as quickly as possible. The actual final score of the robot is primarily a function of the total time in the maze and the time of the fastest run. The specificatons for the micromouse event is specified in appendix A. The Design incorporates various techniques to simplify the approach and make an effecient automated robot.

After detailed analysis regarding the maximum dimensions of the robot the initial dimensions to start with were finalised as 10cm x 10cm. The Micromouse hardware required two stages. Choosing the type of motor 2.

Building the chasis The micromouse was made initially with a DC motor,since the strategy revolved around using very accurate sensors which can be easily ro to regulate the non-linearity of the DC motor.

DC nicromouse has its own advantages of higher torque even micromousd low cost motors. The initial design planned incorporated four 6F22 9v general batteries,which posed considerable weight considerations. This was tackled successfully by the use of a good gear system. The weight of the robot was planned to be lesser than gm which would facilitate free motion of the robot even on rough surfaces.

The number of wheels was a major factor of thought,A four wheeled robot would find it difficult to negotiate turns while giving a steady straight motion. The original micromice used the red paintted wall top to determine the orientation,like a long wing like sensor arrays extending over the walls. Recent designs avoid the large moment of inertia due to huge wing arrays of the sensors and have opted for low riding mice that measure the distance from inside the wall.

The latter design was markedly superior, and permitted extremely compact designs. Sensor design will be discussed in section 3. In hardware consideration of the design it was decided to use optical sensors rather than the ground-contact rolling mciromouse.

The mechanical design ot the micromouse was completed on paper, drawn with relative scale. There are major considerations on the design of the robot since varied approaches can be introduced in the way the robot sees its environment. One elaborate but accurate technique is to measure the intensity of the optical wave and finding the distances of the robot from the obstacles at short distances. A very simple rather not so accurate technique is the move at accurate distances per move and keep counting the cells and keep the robot aware of its current location in the maze.


The wheels selected for the design were plastic hard wheels for easier design approach that offrerd more slip over smooth surfaces. It is obvious that we need some amount of wheel slip is necessary to exert the acceleration force. Worse,the actual grip slip is dependent on the surface type and all that is known is that the ground is black miicromouse color and it absorbs light. Thus to capitalise all the drawbacks on the accurate movement of the robot, repeated testing was required to find average yet accurate motion.

A simple hardware approach essentially required more tedious programming technique. It was decided to tackle problems on software grounds than hardware. It can be noted that the angle of acceptance of the photodiode is small compared to the beam angle of the IR Led.

Since the technique adopted does not involve measuring of the ambient light and measuring the difference, appropriate care has to be taken to prevent ambient light to disterb the ir sensor and inaccurately detect the presence of an obstacle while there was none due to infeference of ambient lightthus the ir sensors were placed far lower in the robot architecture such that the maze walls are solely enough to restrict most of the extenal light disturbances that possibly can disturb our detecting system.

The reqired number of IRs were five. Three sensors to detect the presense of walls on three sides namely front,left and right. The inclination sensors were based on micromouee fact that IRs respond kicromouse within a particular range of inclination with side walls.

Thus as long as the sensors i,e robot was amke with the side walls there would be no eroor signal.

Micromouse Project — IEEE – Cal Poly Pomona

If the robot was to deviate from its path and move at an angle towards the wall the inclination error sensors would be set high which can be detected and processed. To keep the hardware small and compact, the inbuilt EEPROM code memory of 8k was used for programming and the data memory of bytes were used for runtime memory map storage.

Other data storage requirements are implemented on the byte RAM. The processor is the only onboard programmable chip,other peripherals included a shmitt trigger IC 74HC14N. The inverting schmitt trigger was interface to bring the detecting signal to TTL logic.

The motor selection decided the type of motor driving hardware.

Building and testing micromouse sensors

Appropriate reduction gears were used to optimise speed. The motors needed to be driven in both forward and reverse direction thus requiring circuitry to enable drive on either side with appropriate control signals.

A normal relay was used to ,icromouse this, 2 unipolar 16v relays were used to select appropriate motors and 2 bipolar 5v relays were used to determine the direction of the motors. Our robot was implemented on a NEMA14 stepper motor and was driven with a serial pulse of 16vmA supply. IC ULN was ised as drivers. The micromoise requires around X 3 bytes of menory.

The selected microcontroller for implementation had only kbytes of memory, Thus a major memory crisis was micrromouse be tackled on the software basis.

After appropriate analysis the problem statement was simplified to three rules which if followed would direct the robots to the centre of the maze. As the cells are mapped with the numbers as sshown in the figure, at each cell the robot is expected to take three decisions. The robot records each location value as it proceeds towards the center.


To come back to the starting point it just traces the path back from the memory map. The cross-disciplinary nature of the project enabled us to learn elemnts of mechanical,control,signal and computer micormouse. I guess you guys learnt a bit out of it.

Micromouse : Maze solving algorithm | Invobot : Artificially intelligent

Subhobroto Sinha of this blog who fo to post my projects. If possible will make individual points clear in future posts.

Do comment about what you need to know. Click below for the processor schematic diagram.

Many thanks for your rather inciteful post. I would greatly appreciate more micromluse on the orientation sensors and how exactly you used them to get the robot back into a straight orientation. Hi I am Arun i am student of computer branch i am intrested to made wll u help me little bit when i get some problem.

I am fourth year student of Kathmandu Engineering College, Nepal. I I have completed mechanical and hardware part of the project but stopped at programming part. I would like to kindlly request you to help me by providing algorithm details and code if possible. I am also from nepal and trying to build micromouse, i have the problem in programming part too, i m using sonar sensor and stepper motor with arduino microcontroller, could you help me with my project.

Simran, I am also from nepal and trying to build micromouse, i have the problem in programming part too, i m using IR sensor and stepper motor with Atmega32 microcontroller, could you help me with my project. Sure i can help u. I am a second year student in raghu engineering college,visakhapatnam, andhra pradesh. I am very interested in solving the maze through algorithm and i had compleated.

Sairam Thats like if you use a stepper motor you can be sure of the distance it moves. A normal contest dimension is Its a all new maze for robot and he has to find the center and optimize it….

Its a all new maze for the robot and he has to find the center and optimize it…. Here the first step is essentially what u said micromuose doesn. For the first step to serve its purpose it shud defenitely update a map everytime it comes across a cell. I read your algo to generate cell value during runtime. I was not getting why u used terms like 0 cross 08, 0 cross 09 and also in the end in return bracket 0 cross 0f.

Also tell me jow to implement. Faisal if you know avr,PICis similar.

Okie compilers and programmers are available. Do check with your local market. If you are using a stepper motoryou will know that by calibrating signals according to the step size of the motor.

We are trying to write thesis on flood fill algorithm as a part of our project in final year. I have tried my best to find out the algorithm…but have failed to do so.

We also want to prepare the same in flash for demonstration and so we require proper coding for that. Search for the words in the search on the site.

Integrate both ciruits to make up the micromouse circuit.

Code is the worst type of help i can do to u. As far as the algorithm is concerned i guess its veryu clearly explained here. Now the help that i can offer is. I can correct that if you are maoe wrong somewhere.