The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State ( Cambridge Studies in Law and Society) [John Torpey] on *FREE* shipping. Daniel Nordman THE INVENTION OF THE PASSPORT Surveillance, Citizenship and the State John Torpey University of California, Irvine □H CAMBRIDGE. The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Front Cover · John Torpey, Professor of Sociology John Torpey. Cambridge University .
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As the numbers of former emigres in France swelled, they established agencies in various cities dedicated to producing evidence of non-emigration, which was essential for their ability to evade hostile authorities.
To these more strictly political considerations must be added Karl Polanyi’s compelling portrayal of the decisive role of the early modern state in weaving together local into national markets, a process that frequently involved the triumph of the central state against fierce local resistance.
Passport requirements, according to Lemalliaud, “may per- haps afflict the bad citizens, but the true friends of liberty would gladly support this minor inconvenience.
Passport controls and regional integration in postwar Europe Conclusion: Surveillance, Citizenship, and the State”. Not without reason, the revolutionary leadership regarded the emigres – as potential enemies of the revolution in league with the Tge, reactionary priests and nobles, and foreign powers – as a profound threat to its survival.
Individuals who remain beyond the embrace of the state necessarily johnn a limit on its penetration. The foreigner, increasingly defined exclusively in national rather than local terms, was perceived more and more ipso facto as a suspect.
Surveillance, Citizenship ghe the State. Aside from merely authorizing domicile in particular places, certifi- cates of residence were closely tied in to the provision of public welfare, particularly pensions. Torpey’s most recent scholarship focuses on religion in modern society.
While this procedure had supposedly been followed in every other departement in the Republic, “it is clear that the law cannot have applied in Paris, where a conspiratorial municipality has been justly struck down by the national sovereignty that it sought to usurp. Codet asserted that the vast majority of those who traveled were honest people who, without passports, had no way of demonstrating that they were such, nor of being certain that the people they met on the roads would be well-disposed toward them.
Next, I argue that the processes involved in this monopolization force us to rethink the very nature of modern states as they have been portrayed by the dominant strands of sociological theories of the state. I have talked about aspects of this project in venues too numerous to indicate here, but I would nonetheless like to take this opportunity to thank Charles Maier, Director of the Center for European Studies at Harvard, and Nancy Green, a distinguished historian of migration at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, for invitations to speak about this project at their respective institutions and for the helpful comments I received on those occasions.
Globalising Law through Services and Intellectual Property 0 5 hardback 0 X paperback The vagabond is by definition a suspect.
Conversely, upon arrival at the French border, foreigners were to deposit their passports with the municipal authorities, who were to send them on to the Committee of General Security to be visaed.
Torpey Limited preview – Without descrip- tions les signalementsthis critic trpey, those who wished to slip out of the country would have had little difficulty doing so.
The great migrations that pop- ulated many of the world’s inhabited regions would otherwise have been greatly hampered, if not rendered impossible. In response to the Assembly’s inquiry, Montmorin noted that “with the large number of passports [the foreign minister] signs, it is impossible for him to verify whether the name of the persons who request them is true or false.
The mercantilist policies pursued by these states entailed the general presupposition that population was tantamount to, or at least convertible into, wealth and military strength. Retrieved August 30, If the traveler is honest, his passport will be an advantageous document for him, and it will flatter him; if he is not honest, it is necessary that his passport will put him under surveillance throughout the Kingdom.
These petty restrictions were not too much to ask of true defenders of the greater liberties won by the revolution. Between anti-fascism and opposition: Too fre- quendy in recent academic writing, identities have been discussed in purely subjective terms, without reference to the ways in which identities are anchored in law and policy.
John Torpey : The invention of the passport. Surveillance, Citizenship and the State
inventikn Failing their institutionaliza- tion, “nations” must remain ephemeral and fuzzy. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
The law’s pxssport 3 proposed that, in addition to the information required by article 2, each passport was to include a copy extrait of the declaration made before the municipal authorities in accordance with the aforementioned law on municipal police of 19 July In particular, with the creation of the watch committees comites de surveillance on 21 March regulation of movement and enforcement of passport regulations fell more and more into the hands of rogue, sans-culotte elements.
These lassport governing movement helped to codify in law – and to implement in 18 COMING AND GOING practice – a distinction between “local” and “foreign” poor, and notably referred to the place to which illegal settlers should be removed as their “native” residence.
Torpey has written extensively on the role of the state in shaping modern social life. This fact sug- gests an alternative imagery to that of “penetration” for understanding the accumulation of infrastructural capacity by modern states. Such analy- ses have posited that successful states developed the ability to reach into societies to extract various kinds of resources, yet they typically fail to offer any specific discussion of the means they adopted to achieve these ends.
In concluding his enthusiastic endorsement of the proposed passport law, Le Coz wondered aloud: The spread of identification documents such as passports was crucial to states’ monopolization of the legitimate means of movement.
Full text of “The invention of the passport : surveillance, citizenship, and the state”
The study concentrates on the historical development of passport controls as a way of illuminating the institutionalization tofpey the idea of the “nation-state” as a prospectively homogeneous ethnocultural unit, a project that necessarily entailed efforts to regulate people’s movements.
The moderate Louis Becquey suggested that this article and the next should be rejected because “our intention is to prevent internal troubles and to guarantee individual security and general lib- erty,” not to constrain emigration. In any case, many in France itself did not share Condorcet’s openness to outsiders – whether legal foreigners or mere “strangers” – as war loomed on the horizon.
As Greer has put it, this was “a prelude dolce to the later harsh leg- islation” on emigration and the emigres. Accordingly, a study that began by asking how the contemporary passport regime had pawsport and how states used documents to con- trol movement ineluctably widened to include other types of documents related to inclusion and exclusion in the citizen body, and to admission and refusal of entry into specific territories.
The invention of the passport: